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Founded in 2019 in India, RSP Science Hub is a non-profit organisation, publishes high-quality peer-reviewed Journal articles electronically. RSP Science Hub publishes journal that enables researchers, engineers, scientists, graduate students and industry expert to remain up-to-date with the latest developments in their fields. It publishes open access journals, which means all the articles have undergone peer review and upon acceptance are immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download. We publish scholarly articles thereby bringing modern information by modern means to the...
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Promoting the Affective Domain within Global Pandemic: The Challenge of Christian Education

Semuel Ruben; Iwan Setiawan; Wilianus Illu; Sri Wahyuni

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 9, Pages 1-5
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.138

The Christian faith was not merely a matter of knowledge (cognitive domain) alone, but also about feelings and attitudes (affective domain), and deed or practice (psychomotor aspects). All domains in the viewpoint of the Christian faith influenced each other so that all need to get the same judgment. The problem was they were no longer having public meeting, especially in Christian education classes. In the other hand, it was hard to touch affective domain without face-to-face learning. This study investigated the effect of cooperative learning on affective domain in Christian education during the global pandemic of Covid-19. This study was conducted among forty Christian students, and adopted quasi-experimental design with two groups, the experimental group and control group. Prior to the t analysis, the pre-requite test for normality had been conducted. Then, data were analyzed by using paired sample T-Test. The result of analysis revealed that that affective domain in Christian education can be promoted by cooperative learning. Paired sample t-test showed that the value of significance (2-tailed) was less than 0.05, indicated that there was a significant difference of mean between pre-test and post-test results. In this regard, cooperative learning can be solution to increase affective domain in Christian education during pandemic. Further studies are suggested to be conducted with larger samples.

Teaching-Learning Process in Engineering using Virtual Instrument based on LABVIEW

Pramod Aswale; Amit Kumar Mishra; Tanmay Bharambe; Ganesh Gaikwad

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 9, Pages 6-9
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.139

The development of undergraduate laboratories is more expensive if a hand on training approach is considered. Additionally, relatively much inexpensive software can work a standard personal computer (PC) into a virtual lab. The fundamental issues are to set up balance between real and virtual labs to rectify cost related issue while graduating engineers with sufficient practice. This article is useful in a virtual experiment for work of teachers and students in Electronics and Provides a precise and extensive design scheme by which learners can taught engineering experimentation and virtual instrumentation. This virtual experiment platform support classroom teaching using which the teacher can constitute a hi-tech atmosphere, as well as provides exercises and tests self learning of students. A Simulation enriches coaching and enlarges teaching quality. The educational problem is to improve student’s experience of learning Electronics and telecommunication fundamentals using Lab VIEW. It was widely used in the laboratory sessions, to improve students for the project work.

Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on Economic Growth

Anupam Sabharwal

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 9, Pages 10-13
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.140

Foreign direct investment plays an important part in developing countries’ economic development. Improving the international economic transactions has become more critical than trade. Non-debt generating capital inflow from foreign investors encourages enhanced efficiency, technology development, and infrastructure strengthening and job creation opportunities. Therefore every economy seeks to attract FDI by establishing a favorable environment for foreign investment and providing the foreign investors with facilities and inducements. Increasing socio-economic determinants in an economy affect FDI. In this paper an attempt has made to study the impact of FDI on Gross domestic product, gross domestic saving, per capita income and Foreign exchange rate by using bivariate log-log regression.

Review of Deployment of Machine Learning in Blockchain Methodology

Sona Solanki; Asha D Solanki

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 9, Pages 14-20
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.141

The evolution of blockchain methodology has been a remarkable, highly transformative and trend-setting platform in current years. BT's accessible platform reinforces data protection and confidentiality. In addition, the consensus framework in it ensures system is protected and accurate. Nevertheless, it introduces additional security challenges such as invasion by the majority and double consumption. Data analysis on encrypted data centered on blockchain is crucial to manage the existing challenges. Insights on these results elevates the value of emerging of Machine Learning technique. It covers the fair quantity of data needed to make specific choices. Consistency of data and its distribution are very critical in ML to increase findings reliability. The fusion of these two techniques will produce extremely accurate outcomes. In this article, we describe a thorough analysis on ML implementation to make smart applications based on BT further robust to threats. There are numerous standard ML approaches such as Support Vector Machines (SVM), Clustering, Bagging, and Deep Learning (DL) algorithms such as Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and Long-Term Memory (LSTM) that can be employed to evaluate the threats on a block chain network. Finally, we discuss how two different techniques can be implemented in a number of smart applications like Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), Smart Grid (SG), medical care and Smart cities.

A Study on the effect of fairing designs of Go Kart on its performance using CFD analysis

Ezhil Ruban.L; Infento Varun Kennet Thomas; Leonard Maria Dicson .V; Deugul B.S; Mahil H.M

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 9, Pages 21-29
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.142

The primary purpose of the study focuses on the aerodynamic performance of Go Kart with optimized fairing designs using Computational fluid dynamics (CFD). CFD is a modelling technique for fluids which utilizes iterative methods to solve continuity and momentum equations as well as any other auxiliary equations depending upon the type of application. The computational simulations are carried out assuming the steady state viscous fluid flow using Reynolds-averaged-Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations and the standard shear stress transport (SST) k-ω. This paper studies the effect of the modified fairing on the overall aerodynamic performance of the kart such as the amount of drag force and down force generated at different speeds as well the coefficient of drag of the entire kart model (Cd). Three models with different fairing designs were created using CAD software SOLIDWORKS 2018 and analyzed using ANSYS Fluent, the latter two models having optimized fairing designs. The aerodynamic behaviour of the three models Fairing 1, 1.1 & 1.2 is observed at 60 kmph and the simulated result indicates improved aerodynamic performance by both optimized fairings. Fairing 3 in particular exhibits nearly 48% decrease in drag force and a 10% decrease in Cd. This can offer a significantly better performance and reduced fuel consumption compared to the original design.

Analysis of Oxygen Utilization and Its Effects

Shaziya Mohammed Irfan Momin

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 9, Pages 30-32
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.143

The present investigation is carried out using lake water from Bhiwandi city. Most of the biological organisms, micro-organisms present in the water require oxygen for their survival and growth. They utilize the oxygen present in the water. The biological processes decompose oxygen present in the water which may result in decrease in the level of oxygen to such extent which is necessary for normal growth of other aqua fauna. It is found that decline in dissolved oxygen concentration is one of the most important factor that directly affect the lifecycle of most of the aquatic animals. The results of oxygen utilized by the biological process which may not necessary for aquatic ecosystem, are then compared with the standard values prescribed by the standard bodies.

Conceptualization of an Alternate Mechanism of Moulded Case Circuit Breaker (MCCB) To Reduce Reset Force

Saad A. Shaikh; Saad Shaikh

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 9, Pages 33-37
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.144

An electro-mechanical device that is used to protect an electric circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit is used widely and it is known as Moulded Case Circuit Breaker (MCCB). This paper deals with the conceptualization of an alternate model for the mechanism used in MCCB. Forces in the mechanism are directly related to friction between the components so, if we manage to reduce the co-efficient of friction between the components without affecting its function there is a scope of reducing reset forces of themechanism. The new model of sub-assembly in MCCB mechanism has a roller contact between the surfaces instead of sliding contact as compared to the existing mechanism. After calculating forces between all the components using rolling friction, it can be concluded that reset force is expected to reduce by 3-4 kilograms.

Effects of Various Operating Parameters on the Performance of an Air Breathing PEM Fuel Cell

Gopalakrishnan C; Kanchana J; Meenatchi M; Sureshkumar S; Vizhivendhan J

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 9, Pages 38-43
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.145

The objective of the presented work is to study the operating parameters and their effects on the performance of an air breathing PEM fuel cell. In this study, we have theoretically calculated the losses associated with the fuel cells. The performance of the fuel cell can be determined by using the polarisation curve. Polarization curves from which the output voltage can be found are studied in detail. The drop in cell voltage occurs due to several irreversibility in the working environment. Reduction in resistance due to activation energy, mass transport and charge transport can help in increasing the performance of the Fuel cells. The performance of a fuel cell is also affected by the factors such as exchange current density, transfer coefficient. The operating parameters like pressure, temperature are varied and the performance of the PEM fuels cells is recorded.

Electrical Impedance and Modulus Characteristics of Bulk PZT Ceramics Modified by Mn and Ce

Balgovind Tiwari; Babu T; Choudhary R.N.P.

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 9, Pages 44-48
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.146

The compounds of Pb(Zr0.35-xYxTi0.65)O3 (x = 0.00, 0.10 and Y = Mn/Ce) stoichiometry were prepared by a standard solid state route of mixing. The lead zirconatetitanate (PZT) has been modified by substituting 10% of manganese (Mn+4), and cerium (Ce+4) ions, by replacing zirconium (Zr+4). The effect of substitution of Mn+4 and Ce+4 ions, on the electrical properties of PZT based ceramics, has been investigated systematically in this work. To study the impedance and modulus characteristics, adopted are the complex impedance and complex modulus spectroscopic methods respectively. Results indicated that the compounds exhibit negative coefficient of resistance behavior (as evident from impedance spectra), and real ionic conductor nature (as evident from modulus spectra). The electrical properties of the compounds are primarily dominated by the grains rather than grain boundaries and electrode-material interface polarization.

Analysis on the Tc Values of MPB Pb (Zr1-xTix)O3 Ferroelectric Ceramics

Balgovind Tiwari; Babu T; Choudhary R.N.P

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 9, Pages 49-54
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.147

In this communication an attempt has been made to review, in brief, on Curie temperatures (Tc) of lead zirconatetitanate near morphotropical phase boundary. This review also includes 52/48 PZT modified by cadmium (Cd+2) in various amounts such as 5%, 10%, and 15%. We are proposing an easy method of selecting a substitution element for synthesizing modified lead zirconatetitanate (PZT) ceramics. Our investigation revealed that substitution of +3 valence elements will enhance Tc values whereas the substitution of +2 valence elements will decrease Tc. The change in Tc values is also attributed to ionic radii of modifier ions.

Conduction Studies of Pb(Zr0.35-xYxTi0.65)O3 (x = 0.00, 0.10 and Y = Mn/Ce) Ceramics

Balgovind Tiwari; Babu T.; Choudhary R.N.P.

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 9, Pages 55-58
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.148

Lead zirconate titanate (PZT), being one of the most widely investigated ferroelectric, plays a crucial role in the development of technologies related to memories, sensors, actuators, etc. In this work, the samples of Pb(Zr0.35-xYxTi0.65)O3 (x = 0.00, 0.10 and Y = Mn/Ce) composition were synthesized, to investigate their conduction mechanism as a function of frequency and temperature. The temperature response of conductivity of the samples, over selected frequencies, indicated reduction in the barrier properties of the materials. It is observed that the magnitude of conductivity, over a wide range of frequency, is higher for cerium (Ce) modified PZT and lower and manganese (Mn) modified PZT. The negative coefficient of resistance behavior has been observed, from the nature of the variation of the conductivity of samples. Significantly, the conductivity spectra of the compounds is governed by Jonscher’s power law.

Load balancing using openday light SDN controller: Case study

vijaya S eligar; Nalini Iyer; Nihal N.D; Nikhil S.Hugar; YashwantKumar P; Manjunath M.N.

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 9, Pages 59-64
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.149

Traditional networking architectures have many limitations that need to be overcome to meet modern IT requirements. To overcome these limitations; Software Defined Networking (SDN) is taking place as the new networking approach. As traditional networking uses static switches, resource utilization is poor. There are packet loss and delay during switch breakdown. This paper proposes an implementation of a load balancing algorithm for an SDN based network to overcome the stated issues. To test the algorithm, a network is emulated using the Mininet and OpenDaylight platform (ODL) is used as an SDN controller. Python coding language is used to create fat-tree network topology and to write a load balancing algorithm. Finally, iPerf and Wireshark is used to test network performance. The network was tested before and after running the load balancing algorithm. The testing focused on some of the Quality of Service (QoS) parameters such as bandwidth and transfer rate in the fat-tree network. The algorithm increased bandwidth with at least more than 50\%, and improved network utilization

Virtual Discussion for Improving Motivation: A Christian Education Strategy against Covid-19 Pandemic Effect

Sandy Ariawan; Kristyana .; Nungky Nurprasetyaningsih; Rusmi .

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 7, Pages 1-5
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.56

There was a big question about the transition to online learning on around the world, could it motivate student as good as the traditional methods? This study is aimed at finding out the effectiveness of virtual discussion for improving motivation of students during the Covid-19 pandemic. A total of sixty Christian students of State Vocational High School Malang were involved in the study, separated in two classes. The first class was treated with virtual discussion method and the other class as a control class. This study used a quasi-experimental research design, and analyzed using a paired sample t-test. The result obtained sig. 0.000 less than 0.05, showed a significant difference in the mean scores, indicated that virtual discussion was effective for improving motivation of students. From the finding, it is recommended to use virtual discussion in Christian education, against Covid-19 pandemic effect.

STERILOID: Room Sanitization Robot

Gayathri N Shenoy; Chithu Rajan; Shibi Varghese; Vignesh M.V; ShanmugaPriya M; Priya S; Aparna George

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 8, Pages 100-104
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.101

In this paper we have proposed a room sanitation robot. The world around us is facing new threats day by day, latest being the corona virus. Social distancing, wearing masks, sanitizing the hands and disinfecting rooms are some precautionary measures to be taken against this deadly virus. Hence our project aims at disinfecting the rooms by deploying robots instead of manpower. Steriloid is a sanitizing robot which can be used to sanitize rooms, pathways, roads etc. It can be controlled in two modes manually or automatically. In the Automatic mode, the robot moves around the room with the help of two ultrasonic sensors. The sensors detect the obstacle while the robot is in motion and control the robot accordingly. In the Manual mode, complete control of the robot is in the user's hands. A mobile application is used to control the robot via a Bluetooth module. So the robot can move to any location. Sanitizer or sanitizing liquid is filled inside a reservoir and a pump is placed inside it. When the robot starts moving, the pump can be turned on from the mobile or manually and it starts sanitizing the room.

Promoting the Affective Domain within Global Pandemic: The Challenge of Christian Education

Semuel Ruben; Iwan Setiawan; Wilianus Illu; Sri Wahyuni

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 9, Pages 1-5
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.138

The Christian faith was not merely a matter of knowledge (cognitive domain) alone, but also about feelings and attitudes (affective domain), and deed or practice (psychomotor aspects). All domains in the viewpoint of the Christian faith influenced each other so that all need to get the same judgment. The problem was they were no longer having public meeting, especially in Christian education classes. In the other hand, it was hard to touch affective domain without face-to-face learning. This study investigated the effect of cooperative learning on affective domain in Christian education during the global pandemic of Covid-19. This study was conducted among forty Christian students, and adopted quasi-experimental design with two groups, the experimental group and control group. Prior to the t analysis, the pre-requite test for normality had been conducted. Then, data were analyzed by using paired sample T-Test. The result of analysis revealed that that affective domain in Christian education can be promoted by cooperative learning. Paired sample t-test showed that the value of significance (2-tailed) was less than 0.05, indicated that there was a significant difference of mean between pre-test and post-test results. In this regard, cooperative learning can be solution to increase affective domain in Christian education during pandemic. Further studies are suggested to be conducted with larger samples.

Development and Evaluation of Niosomal Gel for TransdermalApplication of steroidal API

Sharma Rupali; Diwan Anupama; Sardana Satish; Sharma Shekhar; Vyas Amisha

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 8, Pages 1-18
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.84

Niosomal drug delivery system serves as drug depots within the body that release the drug in a controlled manner through its bilayer, providing the enclosed drug to be released with sustainedaction.Transdermal drug delivery system for steroidal drug molecules through the development of a niosomal gel is needed for an optimized drug delivery system due to various problems associated with conventional treatment of steroidal molecule. The objective of this study was to develop a niosomalgel-based formulation system for testosterone steroidal molecule dissolved in a mixture of non-ionic surfactant and cholesterol in nanoparticulate form and evaluation of niosomal gel by different optimization parameters. The niosomal gel dispersion was prepared by heating system technique.The drug loaded niosomes showed much less vesicle size [10 - 500 nm] and good PDI, which means that the drug loaded can easily permeate the skin. Niosomal based gel was formulated by using the xanthan gum as gelling agent by optimizing different concentration of different gelling agents to get the best consistency of final niosomal gel. Various measurement parameters such as product quality, pH, purity, homogeneity, spread ability, viscosity, In vitro drug release, particle size determination, zeta potential, FTIR studies and TEM analysis were done to optimize the best batch.Entrapment efficiency was very good with value of 92.17 ± 0.02 percent. Niosomal gel has been found to exhibit strong consistency, good homogeneity, spread ability, and viscosity parameters.Studies of FTIR showed no excipient interaction with the API molecule. TEM images showed that all the particles were in uniform range in niosomal dispersion.Data on the release of in vitro drugs also showed that the release pattern was comparable to the industry formula. The niosomalbased gel formulation developed can be a promising alternative to delivering steroidalbased molecule to minimize the side effects due to skin problems as well as to increase the permeation rate of steroids by using transdermal drug delivery.

Corona virus: an Overview Along with Its Alternative Diagnostic Measures

Pooja Dahiya; Roopsi Kaushik; Anil Sindhu

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue Special Issue ICARD, Pages 163-169
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.113

Corona virus positive sense Ribonucleotide Acid virus with spike like structure as well as a zoonotic virus causing number of diseases in pigs, cows, chickens and recently in a tiger as well as humans. The worldwide emerging pandemic of a great concern to all the scientists, virologists, microbiologists, doctors and even to the common people. In December2019 a life-threatening virus novel corona virus 2019(2019-nCoV) also called as (SARS-CoV) which is an outbreak emerged from the city of Wuhan in China and spread nation-wise to all the world. The disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 is a corona virus disease COVID-19. SARS-CoV2 like SARS-Corona virus uses receptor ACE2 to their entrance into the host cell. Many drugs like Hydroxy-chloroquine etc. used for the treatment as it decreases the effect of corona virus by inhibiting the replication of the corona virus. SARS-CoV2 spreads faster than their two other ancestral species i.e., SARS (2002) and MERS (2012). This virus is spreading exponentially therefore its proper rapid diagnosis is of great concern for the infected ones by providing them medicos. In this review article we will focus on the different diagnostic methods for COVID which are based on molecular and serological testing. RT-PCR the first and rationally used technique to the diagnosis sometimes give false positive and false negative results ascribed to inaccurate isolation of the nucleic acids and takes 5-6 hours which are not applicable for the detection at early stage of infection. So other methods like RT-LAMP (Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification),FET (Field Effect Transistor)based biosensor detect S-protein on the virus surface, Lateral flow immunoassay (LFI)are the other alternative methods for diagnosis purposes.

Design and Analysis of Foot Orthotic For Lower Limb Deformities Using Composites

Sunil Kumar Sahu; Manas Ranjan Sahoo

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 8, Pages 82-87
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.98

This research details a procedure for the systematic design of foot orthotics based on simulation models and validation of the same with subsequent experiment. The present model may ultimately to replace the use of empirical tables for the designing of foot orthotics in accordance to the weight and activities of end-users. This present model is so general that it can simulate different kind of orthotics, loading conditions and material properties to give the desired output. Finally, the proposed model and the corresponding results may lead to the form of design basis for new generation foot orthotics. The methodical approach to the development of engineering analysis models using the FEA technique. Orthotic devices have been commonly made from plastics like polypropylene. However, insufficient mechanical properties, labour intensive preparation process, long client’s visiting times urge us to seek an alternative. Presently, two different advanced composite materials (Glassfiber, Basalt-fiber) have been chosen for the analysis purpose to achieve the low weight and High Strength.

Virtual Discussion for Improving Motivation: A Christian Education Strategy against Covid-19 Pandemic Effect

Sandy Ariawan; Kristyana .; Nungky Nurprasetyaningsih; Rusmi .

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 7, Pages 1-5
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.56

There was a big question about the transition to online learning on around the world, could it motivate student as good as the traditional methods? This study is aimed at finding out the effectiveness of virtual discussion for improving motivation of students during the Covid-19 pandemic. A total of sixty Christian students of State Vocational High School Malang were involved in the study, separated in two classes. The first class was treated with virtual discussion method and the other class as a control class. This study used a quasi-experimental research design, and analyzed using a paired sample t-test. The result obtained sig. 0.000 less than 0.05, showed a significant difference in the mean scores, indicated that virtual discussion was effective for improving motivation of students. From the finding, it is recommended to use virtual discussion in Christian education, against Covid-19 pandemic effect.

Intelligence slicing: A synthesized framework to integrate artificial intelligence into 5G networks

Chandrakala V; Surya Kumar M S R

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 8, Pages 57-61
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.94

For best-performing networks from 5G and above, it must support a wide range of needs. It is understood that more transmission, resource assistance and communication systems will be required. Achieving these tasks can be challenging as network infrastructure becomes more complex and massive. A good solution is to incorporate more robust AI technology that has been tested to provide answers ranging from channel prediction to autonomous network management, as well as network security. Today, however, the latest technology to integrate AI into wireless networks is limited to using a unique AI algorithm to solve a specific problem. A comprehensive framework that can fully utilize the power of AI in solving various network problems remains an open problem. Therefore, this paper introduces the idea of the spy pieces on which the AI unit is installed and delivers on one condition. Intelligence units are used to flexibly control the intelligence of AI algorithms with two comprehension strategies to perform different intellectual tasks: 1) Neural network-based channel predictions and 2) Industrial network-based security acquisition, to illustrate this framework.

STERILOID: Room Sanitization Robot

Gayathri N Shenoy; Chithu Rajan; Shibi Varghese; Vignesh M.V; ShanmugaPriya M; Priya S; Aparna George

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 8, Pages 100-104
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.101

In this paper we have proposed a room sanitation robot. The world around us is facing new threats day by day, latest being the corona virus. Social distancing, wearing masks, sanitizing the hands and disinfecting rooms are some precautionary measures to be taken against this deadly virus. Hence our project aims at disinfecting the rooms by deploying robots instead of manpower. Steriloid is a sanitizing robot which can be used to sanitize rooms, pathways, roads etc. It can be controlled in two modes manually or automatically. In the Automatic mode, the robot moves around the room with the help of two ultrasonic sensors. The sensors detect the obstacle while the robot is in motion and control the robot accordingly. In the Manual mode, complete control of the robot is in the user's hands. A mobile application is used to control the robot via a Bluetooth module. So the robot can move to any location. Sanitizer or sanitizing liquid is filled inside a reservoir and a pump is placed inside it. When the robot starts moving, the pump can be turned on from the mobile or manually and it starts sanitizing the room.

Development and Evaluation of Niosomal Gel for TransdermalApplication of steroidal API

Sharma Rupali; Diwan Anupama; Sardana Satish; Sharma Shekhar; Vyas Amisha

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 8, Pages 1-18
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.84

Niosomal drug delivery system serves as drug depots within the body that release the drug in a controlled manner through its bilayer, providing the enclosed drug to be released with sustainedaction.Transdermal drug delivery system for steroidal drug molecules through the development of a niosomal gel is needed for an optimized drug delivery system due to various problems associated with conventional treatment of steroidal molecule. The objective of this study was to develop a niosomalgel-based formulation system for testosterone steroidal molecule dissolved in a mixture of non-ionic surfactant and cholesterol in nanoparticulate form and evaluation of niosomal gel by different optimization parameters. The niosomal gel dispersion was prepared by heating system technique.The drug loaded niosomes showed much less vesicle size [10 - 500 nm] and good PDI, which means that the drug loaded can easily permeate the skin. Niosomal based gel was formulated by using the xanthan gum as gelling agent by optimizing different concentration of different gelling agents to get the best consistency of final niosomal gel. Various measurement parameters such as product quality, pH, purity, homogeneity, spread ability, viscosity, In vitro drug release, particle size determination, zeta potential, FTIR studies and TEM analysis were done to optimize the best batch.Entrapment efficiency was very good with value of 92.17 ± 0.02 percent. Niosomal gel has been found to exhibit strong consistency, good homogeneity, spread ability, and viscosity parameters.Studies of FTIR showed no excipient interaction with the API molecule. TEM images showed that all the particles were in uniform range in niosomal dispersion.Data on the release of in vitro drugs also showed that the release pattern was comparable to the industry formula. The niosomalbased gel formulation developed can be a promising alternative to delivering steroidalbased molecule to minimize the side effects due to skin problems as well as to increase the permeation rate of steroids by using transdermal drug delivery.

Publisher: RSP Science Hub

Email:  editor.irjash@rspsciencehub.com

Editor-in-chief: Dr. R. Ranjith

Online ISSN: 2582-4376

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International Conference on Advancements in Engineering and Technology-2020
Warm Greetings from RSP Conference Hub (A unit of RSP Science Hub), Coimbatore Organizing its 5th series of “International Conference on Advancements in Engineering and Technology-2020” (ICEAT) About ...

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